A Critical Review on the Socio-educational Model of SLA

Masumeh Taie, Asghar Afshari

Abstract


Gardner's socio-educational model is the leading theory of motivation in the area of language learning (MacIntyre, 2002). Focusing on integrative motivation (Gu, 2009), it presents a dynamic model in which attitude and motivation affect language achievement, and language achievement itself affects attitude and motivation in an almost cyclical fashion (Gardner, 2001b). Although many researches have dealt with this model, few have scrutinized it a concise format. This paper, consequently, attempts to meet such an end.

Keywords


socio-educational model; motivation; integrativeness; orientation; attitudes toward the learning situation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Baker, C. (1992). Attitudes and language. Pennsylvania: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Brown, J. D., Robson, G., & Rosenkjar, P. R. (2001). Personality, motivation, anxiety, strategies, and language proficiency of Japanese students. In Z. Dörnyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 361-398). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Cook, V. (2008). Second language learning and language teaching. London: Hodder Education.

Dewaele, J. M. (2009). Perception, attitude and motivation. In L. Wei & V. Cook (Eds), Contemporary applied linguistics: Language teaching and learning (pp. 163-192). New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language Classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 273-84. doi: 10.2307/330107

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/330107

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Finegan, E. (2012). Language: Its structure and use. Massachusetts: Wadswoth, Cengage Learning.

Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitude and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.

Gardner, R. C. (2000). Correlation, causation, motivation and second language acquisition. Canadian Psychology, 41(1), 10-24. doi: 10.1037/h0086854

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0086854

Gardner, R.C. (2001a, February). Integrative Motivation: Past, Present and Future. Paper presented at Distinguished Lecturer Series, Tokyo, Temple University, Japan Campus. Retrieved October 1, 2013, from http://publish.uwo.ca/~gardner/docs/GardnerPublicLecture1.pdf.

Gardner, R. C. (2001b). Integrative motivation and second language acquisition. In Z. Dörnyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 1-19). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Gardner, R. C. (2006). The socio-educational model of second language acquisition: A research paradigm. In S. H. Foster-Cohen, M. Medved Krajnovic, and J. Mihaljević Djigunović (Eds.), Eurosla yearbook (pp. 237–260). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi: 10.1075/eurosla.6.14gar.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/eurosla.6.14gar

Gardner, R. C. (2010a). Motivation and second language acquisition: The socio-educational model. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Gardner, R. C. (2010b). Second language acquisition: A social psychological perspective. In R. B. Kaplan (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of applied linguistics (pp. 204-216). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195384253.013.0014

Gardner, R. C., & Lambert. W. E. (1959). Motivational variables in second language acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13(4), 266-272. doi: 10.1037/h0083787.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0083787

Gardner, R. C., Lalonde, R. N., & Pierson, R. (1983). The socio-educational model of second language acquisition: An investigation using Lisrel causal modeling, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 2(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1177/0261927X8300200101.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X8300200101

Gardner, R. C., & Lalonde, R. N. (1985, August). Second language acquisition: A Social psychological perspective. Paper presented at the 93rd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved August 10, 2014, from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED262624.pdf doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195384253.013.0014.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195384253.013.0014

Gardner, R. C., & Maclntyre, P. D. (1993). On the measurement of affective variables in second language learning. Language Learning, 43(2), 157-194. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-1770.1992.tb00714.x.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1992.tb00714.x

Gardner, R. C., & Smythe, P. C. (1981). On the development of the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 37, 510-525. Retrieved September 1, 2014, from www.researchgate.com.

Gu, M. (2009). The discursive construction of second language learners' motivation: A multi- level perspective. Bern: Peter Lang AG, International Academic Publishers.

Kojima Takahashi, C. (n.d.). Investigating the socio-educational model of foreign language motivation in Japan: A synthesis of research. Retrieved October 1, 2013 from https://www.google.com/#q=%22Chika%22%2B%22Investigating+the+socio-educational+model+%22.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding language teaching: From method to postmethod. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Lambert, W. E. (1955). Measurement of the linguistic dominance of bilinguals. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 50(2), 197-200. doi: 10.1037/h0042120.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0042120

MacIntyre, P. D. (2002). Motivation, anxiety and emotion in second language acquisition. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 45-68). Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/lllt.2.05mac

MacIntyre, P. D. (2007). Willingness to communicate in second language: Understanding the decision to speak as a volitional process. The Modern Language Journal, 91, 564-576. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00623.x.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00623.x

MacIntyre, P. D., MacMaster, K., & Baker, S. C. (2001). The convergence of multiple models of motivation for second language learning: Gardner, Pintrich, Kuhl, and McCroskey. In Z. Dörnyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 461-492). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

MacIntyre, P. D., Mackinnon, S. P., & Clement, R. (2009). Toward the development of a scale to assess possible selves as a source of language learning motivation. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 193-214). New York: Multilingual Matters.

Noels, K. A. (2001). New orientations in language learning motivation: Towards a model of intrinsic, extrinsic, and integrative orientations and motivation. In Z. Dörnyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 43-98). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Rock, J. (2012). Teaching and researching motivation (second edition) [Review of the book Teaching and researching motivation, by Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda]. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 16(2), 1-4. Retrieved August 28, 2014, from http://www.tesl-ej.org/wordpress/issues/volume16/ej62/ej62r3/.

Semmar, Y. (2006). An exploratory study of motivational variables in a foreign language learning context. Journal of Language and Learning, 5(1), 118-132. Retrieved August 25, 2014, from http://www.jllonline.co.uk/journal/jllearn/4_1/9_YASSIR.pdf.

Semmar, Y. (2007). Gardner's socio-educational model of second language acquisition: Alive and well in foreign language-learning contexts. In K. Bernhardt & G. Davis (Eds.), Lingua Et Linguistica 1.2 (pp. 174-188). London: Shakespeare Centre Press.

Sternberg, R. J. (2002). The theory of successful intelligence and its implications for language aptitude testing. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Individual differences and instructed language learning (pp. 13-44). Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/lllt.2.04ste

Tremblay, P. F., & Gardner, R. C. (1995). Expanding the motivation construct in language learning, The Modern Language Journal, 79(4), 505-518. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.1995.tb05451.x.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1995.tb05451.x

Williams, M., & Burden, R. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: A social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0503.21

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Theory and Practice in Language Studies (TPLS, ISSN 1799-2591)
Copyright © 2015-2017 ACADEMY PUBLICATION — All Rights Reserved